【FIFA官网】儿童心理和教学方法

发表时间:2017-6-8  浏览次数:1595  
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儿童心理和教学方法

序言

As children grow up, they pass through different stages. Children have different needs and behaviours; they do not all develop in the same way. For this reason, it is important to be aware of the specific characteristics and priorities of each of the stages of childhood and adolescence, taking into account physical, physiological and psychological aspects. The coach-educator must realise that a young person is not a small adult.

The stages of a child’s growth and development must be taken into account in order to ensure the best possible approach. It is the coach-educator’s responsibility to be aware of these essential points and to apply appropriate responses in individual cases. It is important to consider the physical development of each young player and to distinguish their actual age from their physical age.

Furthermore, some children start to play football later than age 6-8, which is when the majority of children start. That is why it is important for the coach-educator to respect the child’s level and have a positive approach to encourage learning.

A coach-educator supervises children playing football;
a coach-educator does not train footballers.

随着儿童的成长,他们会经历不同的成长阶段,在不同的成长阶段就会有不同的需求和不同的表现。而且,每个儿童的成长方式和方向也是各有不同的,考虑到这些原因以及他们在不同阶段生理和心理上的因素,作为一名足球教练需要清楚的认识到童年期和青春期的特殊心理现象和其优先顺序,这是非常重要的。每一个教练都应该认识到你们的教育对象是小孩子,不是“小大人”。

为了让我们实施的教学方法是尽可能最好的,必须要认真研究儿童的成长和发展阶段的特性,而认识到这些基本要点和对于单个特殊案例能够采用适合并适当的回应,是每个教练应该具备的基本能力。

此外,一些小球员在6-8岁以后才开始去接触足球的,而通常6-8岁是大部分儿童开始学球的时间段,这就是为什么要求每个教练都应该尊重每个儿童不同的水平阶段和采用积极的方法去鼓励激励学习的重要性。

足球教练应该是指导儿童踢球,而不是训练足球运动员。

1, 课程准备
  • Written notes

  • 记录要点

  • General knowledge of football

  • 对足球要有基本的认识

  • Setting the objectives to be achieved

  • 设置可以达到的目标

  • Choice of exercises, adapted to the children’s capabilities

  • 根据不同小朋友的能力,而有不同的训练方式

  • Preparation in terms of the location and schedule of exercises

  • 根据训练地点和时间表而准备

  • Tailoring instructions depending on the children’s level

  • 根据小朋友的水平而制定游戏说明

  • Gradual development of exercises, taking the children’s level into account

  • 训练需要考虑到小朋友的水平而循序渐进

  • Repetition of exercises and memorising of situations by the children

  • 重复的训练让小朋友得到场景记忆

  • Evaluation of exercises and progress made by the children

  • 训练的评估和进阶可以由小朋友制定

2, 课程组织
  • Setting out the area for play, providing a suitable space

  • 因地制宜,准备合适的训练场地

  • Teaching equipment, first-aid kit

  • 教学辅助工具,急救箱

  • Organisation of exercises and games: distribution of bibs, movement and rotation of players, etc.

  • 训练和游戏的组织:标志服的分发,球员的移动和轮换等等

  • Organisation of teams. It is important that teams are balanced when they compete against each other to make sure that the children remain motivated

  • 队伍的组织:当与其他队伍进行对抗比赛时,保证队伍的平衡,对保持球员的积极性有很重要的作用

  • Players’ level

  • 球员的水平

  • Players’ physical characteristics

  • 球员的物理特征

  • Diversity, adapting the rules if necessary

  • 如果可以的话可以改编游戏规则使其多样性

  • Progressive development of exercises and games

  • 训练和游戏的进阶发展

  • Duration and repetition of exercises

  • 训练的持续性和重复性

  • Rest periods, drinks for the children 

  • 注意休息时间留给球员补充水

3, 课程激励
  • Simple, comprehensive explanations of the objectives of the session

  • 对课程目标简单全方位的解释

  • Presentation of the contents

  • 课程内容的准备

  • Organisation of teams and/or working groups in workshops

  • 组织队伍或者分组研讨

  • Setting up exercises

  • 组织训练

  • Positioning players

  • 把球员放在合适的位置上

  • Demonstrating the exercise

  • 演示训练内容

  • Carrying out the exercise, monitoring time taken

  • 实施训练,检测所需的时间

  • Exercises and motivation

  • 训练和激励方式

  • Teaching by encouragement

  • 鼓励式教学

  • Monitoring comprehension of exercises and the quality of implementation

  • 注意球员对训练的理解和实施的质量

  • Collective and/or individual correction of exercises

  • 对训练集体或者单个个体的纠正

  • Ongoing control of schedule and area

  • 对时间和场地区域的不间断的控制

  • Pursuit of technical quality

  • 对技战术质量的追求

  • Games and motivation

  • 游戏激励

  • Teaching by encouragement

  • 鼓励式教学

  • Allowing play to continue, infrequent intervention

  • 允许持续、偶然性的干扰

  • Encouraging individual initiative

  • 鼓励单独个体的主动性

  • Promoting creativity

  • 提高创造力

  • Maintaining the technical balance between teams  

  • 保持队伍间的技战术平衡

4, 课程总结
  • Bringing the children back together and calming down

  • 把小朋友都集合一起,并让其安静下来

  • Evaluation, discussion, recommendations

  • 评估,讨论,建议

  • Introduction of the next session

  • 对下个课程的介绍

  • Putting equipment away

  • 带走教学辅助工具

  • Overseeing the children’s departure  

  • 监督孩子们离开

男女混合参与足球

For many years, numerous countries did not permit young people to play mixed-sex football for cultural reasons. Young girls would only be allowed to play football with other girls, regardless of the age difference between them. In the field of education, many countries have now adopted mixed-sex schools, in which children are no longer categorised by their gender, but by age or academic level.

Mixed-sex participation in sport, and football, by young people has followed suit. It is worth noting that certain countries allow mixed-sex participation in football up to the age of 12, while others do not impose any category restrictions at all on mixed-sex football, which explains why football is so well-developed in these countries. Allowing boys and girls to play together contributes to the emancipation of the two genders, improves tolerance and promotes mutual respect. By playing alongside boys, girls gain a more positive image of themselves, increase their self-confi dence and become more aware of their abilities.

Mixed-sex participation in football encompasses all the forms of competition in which girls and boys play with and against one another. In other words, we can use the term “mixedsex football” to refer to any of the following cases:

  • a team of boys playing against a team of girls;

  • a mixed-sex team (boys and girls) playing against a team of boys;

  • a mixed-sex team (boys and girls) playing against a team of girls;

  • a mixed-sex team (boys and girls) playing against a mixedsex team (boys and girls).  

Allowing mixed-sex football at least up to the age of 12 – wherever possible and bearing in mind the structure of different societies and the cultural and educational opportunities available – will contribute greatly to the development of football in general. 

许多年来,由于文化因素,多数国家都不推崇小球员在足球项目中男女混合训练或者比赛,女孩只被允许和其他的女孩一起踢球,而完全忽视掉他们群体中的年龄差异。在教育板块,许多国家都已经开设了男女混合性别的学校,在这些学校里面,儿童不再因为是因为他们的性别被分类,而是因为他们的年龄和学术水平。

在运动中男女混合参与的项目中,足球运动如法炮制了这一点。然而值得注意的是,在足球项目上,某些国家是直到12岁才开始男女混合参与的,其他国家则是在男女混合参与这点上没有任何其他类别的限制的,这就很好的解释了为什么这些国家的足球运动发展的如此之好。让男孩和女孩一起玩足球,有助于促进性别的解放,提高和促进相互的尊重和宽容。女孩子在跟男孩子一起训练时,会容易看到自己比较正面积极的形象,从而提升自信和更加注重自身的能力。

男女混合参与包含了所有形式的男女一起或者男女对抗的比赛,一般我们用“男女混合式足球”来指以下几种情况:

一队男生与一队女生对抗

一队男女混合的队伍与一队男生对抗

一队男女混合的队伍与一队女生对抗

一队男女混合的队伍与一队男女混合的队伍对抗

6-8岁的儿童

心理特征:

  • Fragile, developing quickly, difficulties with coordination

  • 心理脆弱,发展很快,难以学会合作

  • Short attention and concentration spans

  • 注意力短暂

  • Excellent facility for imitation (visual memory)

  • 善于模仿

  • Likes playing, plays for him/herself, egocentrism

  • 喜欢玩,自顾自的玩,自我主义

  • Enjoyment of the game

  • 喜欢比赛带来的乐趣

针对此年龄段的训练内容:

  • Basic football technique, coordination exercises

  • 基础的足球技巧,合作训练

  • Introductory games, getting used to the ball

  • 引导类游戏,熟悉球

  • Small-sided games: 4 v 4 and 5 v 5 matches

  • 小区域游戏:4V4,或者5V5

  • Alternating matches, introductory games and exercises

  • 比赛,引导类游戏和基础训练交替进行

  • Balanced groups or teams

  • 保持队伍平衡

此时教练充当的角色:

  • Supervises games, reassures and motivates

  • 游戏的管理,安抚和激励

  • Demonstrates the exercises

  • 演示训练

  • Simple, expressive language

  • 简单和极具表现力的语言

  • Limited intervention / letting the children play

  • 有限地干预/让孩子们玩

  • Teaching by encouragement

  • 通过鼓励去教育引导



                  
                  

9-10岁的儿童

心理特征:

  • Improved speed, endurance and strength

  • 更好的速度,耐力和力量

  • Improved coordination

  • 更好的合作

  • Good visual memory

  • 良好的记忆力

  • Good self-confidence

  • 良好的自信

  • Discussion skills

  • 讨论技巧

  • A hunger to learn and discover

  • 渴望学习和发现

  • Collective spirit

  • 集体精神

针对此年龄段的训练内容:

  • Basic techniques (the basics of football)

  • 基础的技巧(足球的基础)

  • Basic team organisation

  • 基本的队伍组织

  • Speed, energy, reaction, coordination

  • 速度,力量,反应,合作

  • Training games

  • 训练式游戏

  • Small-sided games: 5 v 5, 7 v 7 (depending on the level of the children)

  • 小区域游戏:5V5,7V7(取决于小孩子的水平)

  • Alternating matches, training games, exercises

  • 比赛,训练式游戏,训练交替进行

  • Balanced groups or teams

  • 保持队伍平衡

此时教练充当的角色:

  • Methodology, teaching techniques

  • 方法论,教技巧

  • Emotional and technical leadership

  • 情绪和技巧的领导

  • Organisational and communication skills

  • 组织和沟通的技巧

  • Establishing team spirit

  • 建立团队精神

  • General knowledge of football

  • 足球的基础知识

  • Demonstration, implementation, correction

  • 示范,执行和纠正

  • Teaching by encouragement

  • 激励式教学


                  
                  

11-12岁的儿童

心理特征:

  • Significant physical changes

  • 重要的生理变化

  • Better balance, better coordination

  • 更好的平衡和合作

  • Improved visual and aural memory

  • 更好的视觉和听觉记忆

  • Critical faculties, discussion skills

  • 判断力和讨论技巧

  • Improved attention

  • 更好的注意力

  • A hunger to learn

  • 渴望学习

  • Assertiveness

  • 有魄力更自信

  • Development of the competitive spirit

  • 竞技精神的发展

  • Team spirit

  • 团队精神

针对此年龄段的训练内容:

  • Speed, energy and reaction

  • 速度,力量和反应

  • Coordination

  • 合作

  • Basic techniques (the basics of football)

  • 基础的技巧(足球的基础)

  • Basic team organisation (3-2-3)

  • 基础的队伍组织(3-2-3)

  • The general principles of play and motivation

  • 游戏的一般原则和行动方法

  • Control of space and movement

  • 对空间和移动的控制

  • Small-sided games: 5 v 5, 7 v 7, 9 v 9 (depending on the level of the children)

  • 小区域内游戏:5V5,7V7,9V9(根据小朋友的水平)

  • Promoting creativity

  • 提高创造力

  • Encouraging individuals to take initiative

  • 鼓励个人去积极主动

此时教练充当的角色:

  • Methodology and teaching techniques

  • 方法论和教技巧

  • Establishing a group spirit

  • 建立团队精神

  • Quality of behaviour

  • 态度

  • Knowledge of football

  • 足球知识

  • Technical language

  • 专业术语

  • Teaching through play

  • 从玩中教学

  • Motivating the team

  • 激励队伍

  • Demonstration, implementation, correction

  • 演示,执行和纠正

  • Teaching by encouragement

  • 鼓励式教学


                    
                    

成长

Children grow at different speeds, depending on the different stages of development they are going through. Sexual characteristics generally start to develop at 11.5 years of age for girls and 12.5 for boys. The first signs are the development of breasts in girls and enlargement of the testicles in boys.

Annual growth in height increases from 5cm before puberty to 7-9cm during the pubertal growth spurt. On average, this growth spurt is experienced by girls at the age of 12 and by boys at 14. However, differences in growth before the age of 12 should not prevent boys and girls from playing together.

Coach-educators should nevertheless take account of the difference between their chronological ages and their biological ages as well as any cases of precocious puberty when managing mixed groups to ensure they are well balanced.

根据每个儿童正在经历的成长阶段不同,他们的成长速度也不尽相同。性特征开始年龄段,女生是在11.5岁,男生12.5岁。第一表征通常是在性器官这方面。

青春期前后,身高的年度增长会由之前的5cm变为7-9厘米(青春期发育过程中),平均来说,这种青春期发育,女孩子一般是在12岁,男孩子是在14岁会有明显的感觉,因此在12岁之前的成长的不同应该不能作为限制男女混合参与足球的原因。

尽管如此,当教练在教导一个男女混合参与的足球队伍时,为了保证队伍的平衡性,教练也应当考虑他们的实际年龄和心理年龄之间的差异,以及任何形式的性早熟表现。

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